Myopia: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, And Effective Treatments

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Myopia is one of the most common visionary disorders that is diagnosed in a lot of people across the world. In most cases, this condition can be diagnosed even before the age of 20. If you have this issue, you may find it difficult to see objects that are far away from you. You may not have a clear vision of the signboards on buses, trains, markets, and so on.

Children often complain of difficulty in seeing the blackboards in classrooms, which usually leads to the diagnosis of myopia. However, this condition can be treated with the use of contact lenses, corrective glasses, laser treatment, and even surgery. In this article, we will let you know more about this condition in detail, covering its aspects such as symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. 

Myopia: Causes 

Genetics 

Genetics is one of the major causes of myopia. If your parents have the issue of myopia, it is always better to have your eyesight checked once in a while, especially during your early childhood and teenage. This would help in diagnosing the condition, as early as possible. It would also help in preventing the loss of eyesight further. Even if both of your biological parents are suffering from the condition, or it is just the case with one of them, it is better to have regular checkups without fail. 

Myopia Causes 

Lifestyle 

If your lifestyle is always centered around work that only requires close sight, you are also highly likely to develop this condition. People who have screen time also belong to this category. Hence it is better to use your vision in a balanced manner to view that are near and far equally to prevent this condition.

Myopia: Symptoms 

Blurred vision

You may have a blurred vision of things that are far away. However, there won’t be any difficulty in distinguishing or viewing what is near. This comparison would help you analyze your sight disorder by yourself and seek medical help. 

Headaches

Headaches would be a regular companion to those who are suffering from myopia. This can be worse especially if you are not wearing corrective glasses or contact lenses. Hence it is better to get the diagnosis done soon and seek treatment. 

Eye Strain 

Strain would be experienced especially when you try harder to view things that are far away. This can exhaust you and make your head feel heavier. 

A poor span of attention 

In children who are suffering from myopia, the attention span can be found to be way less. In such cases get medical help soon so that their academic qualities can be brought back on track. 

Myopia: Risk Factors 

Family History 

Family history is a risk factor that elevates the likeliness of an individual to be affected by this condition. This can also get doubled when both of your parents have the myopia issue. 

Screen time 

Just like family history, screen time is also a cause and a risk factor for myopia. Children who spend a lot of time with exposure to screens are highly likely to be affected by the condition. 

Lack of outdoor activities 

If you are someone who does not have enough time to spend outdoors, especially with nature, and engaging in any kind of sports or physical activities, you may also develop the issue of myopia. 

Ethnicity 

Some ethnic groups are more likely to have this condition when compared to others. Hence this can also become a risk-elevating factor. 

Myopia: Diagnosis 

Standard Eye Examination 

This is done by making you read letters on a chart. The letters would be arranged in varying sizes so that your difficulty can be analyzed easily. 

Examination using retinoscope 

A retinoscope is used to analyze the way in which your retina reflects the rays of light that fall on the eyes. This would also help the doctors to have a more detailed understanding apart from the standard eye examination. 

Phoropter test 

This instrument is used to measure the refractive error of your vision. It is using this test, that the power of your corrective glasses or contact lenses is determined. 

Child myopia test 

This is done in children to test their myopia. For this images are used and it should be done in regular intervals, especially if the child has a family history of myopia. 

Myopia: Treatment 

Corrective glasses 

This is the most commonly adapted treatment method for myopic patients. However, some people may only need it while driving and some may need to wear it constantly. However, if you are 40 and above, bifocal lenses would be prescribed to you. In most cases of child myopia, corrective glasses with a single lens can serve the purpose.

Contact lenses 

Corrective contact lenses can also be preferred if you do not wish to wear glasses. However, it is important that you should take more care and effort to keep the lenses clean to avoid any possible infections. 

Laser treatments

Laser treatments also have an increasing popularity among people nowadays. However, people with issues of eye dryness are not recommended to get a laser treatment done since it can result in a couple of side effects. 

Surgeries 

In certain severe conditions, doctors may also advise surgery to the patient for an effective correction. 

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Conclusion

These are all that you need to know about myopia to deal with it if you or your near ones get affected by the issue. The symptoms would help you seek treatment in a timely manner without making the situation worse. Apart from that, you may also switch to a more mindful and active lifestyle, if a sedentary life and increased screen exposure are elevating your risk of myopia. Apart from that, understanding the myopic risks of children with myopic parents would also help in taking care of their academic qualities and learning capabilities. In short, routine checkups are the key when it comes to treating this condition. Wearing corrective glasses strictly and abiding by the instructions of your ophthalmologist is also quite important. 

References

Pararajasegaram R. Vision 2020—the right to sight: from strategies to action. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;182:359–360. [PubMed]

Praveen MR, Vasavada AR, Jani UD, Trivedi RH, Choudhary PK . Prevalence of cataract type in relation to axial length in subjects with high myopia and emmetropia in an Indian population. Am J Ophthalmol 2008; 145 (1): 176–181. Article 

Dr. David G Kiely is a distinguished Medical Reviewer and former General Medicine Consultant with a wealth of experience in the field. Dr. Kiely's notable career as a General Medicine Consultant highlights his significant contributions to the medical field.

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