The Human Eye is a complex and delicate organ and a valuable asset for life. Eyes play a fundamental role in our perception of the world, and because of them, we can experience the world around us. However, amidst this beauty of nature, certain eye diseases can cause great inconvenience, either altering our vision or causing complete vision loss.
From age-related eye diseases to genetic disorders and macular degeneration, there are a range of challenges human eyes go through. Here are some of the most common eye diseases, their causes and symptoms. Observe the symptoms to evaluate your eye health.
6 Most Common Eye Conditions And Diseases
1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Age-Relayed Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a progressive eye disease that primarily affects older adults. AMD impacts the central part of the retina, ‘Macula’, that regulates sharp, central vision. It effects older adults, ideally people over 50 years and can be of two types: Dry and Wet.
Dry AMD covers 80% of the total AMD cases, and the loss of vision in this condition is often a little slow. Wet AMD, which is less common, can have severe impacts and faster vision loss.
|Causes Of AMD
|Symptoms Of AMD
|Treatment Of AMD
|Difficulty Recognizing Faces
|For Dry AMD
Nutritional Supplements And Lifestyle Changes
|High Blood Pressure
|Blurred Or Dismissed Vision
|For Vet AMD
|Decreased Color Perception
|Family History Of AMD
|Distorted Vision Or Dry/ Empty Spaces
Amblyopia or ‘Lazy Eye’ is basically a vision development disorder that occurs amongst infants or during early childhood. Amblyopia commonly occurs when the nerve pathway connecting the eye and brain isn’t stimulated. It generally reduces one’s vision and is less common in both eyes. In simpler words, Amblyopia is a condition where the brain favours one eye over the other.
|Causes Of Amblyopia
|Symptoms Of Amblyopia
|Treatment Of Amblyopia
|Cataract Or Similar Eye Conditions
|Squinting Or Repeated Eye Closer
|Poor Depth Perception
|Eye Patching (To Encourage The Use Of Weaker Eyes)
|Crossed Eyes/ Misaligned Eyes Or Strabismus
|Difference Of Vision In Both The Eyes
|Poor Peripheral Vision
|Atropine Eye Drop
3. Diabetic Retinopathy
Caused by high blood sugar (Diabetes), Diabetic Retinopathy affects the retina, leading to abnormal blood vessel growth in the eyes. It can cause blindness amongst impacted diabetic individuals and even permanent vision loss. Retinopathy occurs in different stages, from Mild to Moderate, Severe, and Proliferative, where finally, the blood vessels a vitreous gel along the retina.
|Causes Of Diabetic Retinopathy
Symptoms Of Diabetic Retinopathy
|Treatment Of Diabetic Retinopathy
|High Blood Sugar Levels For Prolonged Periods
|Constant Blurry Vision Or Blurry Vision Changing To Clear Vision
|Effective Management Of Diabetes
|High Blood Pressure, Aka Hypertension
|Poor Night Vision
|Effective Management Of Hypertension
|The Duration Of Diabetes
|Loss Of Vision
|Seeing An Increased Number Of Floaters
|Difficulty In Seeing Colors
Glaucoma is a group of common eye conditions that is common during the senior years of life, though it can even affect youngsters. This eye disease damages the optic nerves and is often associated with Elevated Intraocular Pressure (IOP) along with low or normal IOP. Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of (irreversible) blindness worldwide.
Causes Of Glaucoma
Symptoms Of Glaucoma
Treatment Of Glaucoma
|Intraocular Eye Pressure
|Gradual Loss Of Peripheral Vision
|Eye Drop (Prescription-based)
|Rainbow Color Halos Upon Seeing Any Artificial Light
|Family History Of Glaucoma
|Blurred Vision And Blind Spots
|Diabetes Or Other Medical Conditions
|Surgical Interventions Like Trabeculectomy Or MIGS
|African, Latin American, Hispanic Or Asian Descent
5. Refractive Errors
Refractive Error is one of the prevalent eye diseases, common during all stages of life. In most cases, refractive error results in blurred or distorted vision. The condition is caused by the inability of the eyes to focus light on the retina properly. Some common refractive errors include Myopia (Nearsightedness), Hyperopia (Farsightedness), Astigmatism, and Presbyopia.
Causes Of Refractive Errors
Symptoms of Refractive Errors
|Treatment of Refractive Errors
|Too Short Or Too Long Eyeballs
|Eye Strain Or Eye Pain
|Too Curved Cornea Or Too Little Curvature
|Blurred Or Distorted Vision
|Environmental Factors, Including Prolonged Usage Of Digital Devices
|Multifocal Contact Lenses Or Eye Glases
|Refractive Lens Exchange
Strabismus, also known as ‘Crossed Eye’ or ‘Turned Eye’, is a common disorder that develops during childhood. It isn’t mainly an eye disease but a vision condition in which both eyes point towards different directions, affecting the overall binocular vision. There are different types of Strabismus, including Esotropia, Exotropia, Hypertropia, and Hypotropia.
Causes Of Strabismus
|Symptoms Of Strabismus
Treatment Of Strabismus
|Muscle Imbalance (Responsible For Eye Movement And Alignment)
|Both Eyes Don’t Move Together
|Headache And Eye Strain
|Genetic (Most Common Reason)
|Squinting Or Closing One Eye
|Poor Depth Perception
|Any Illness During Childhood
|Eye Injury Or Eye Disease
Overall, these were some of the common eye diseases that affect individuals of different age groups globally. From conditions like cataracts and glaucoma to diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration, these eye diseases can impact your experience of looking towards the world. However, by understanding the causes and evaluating the symptoms early, it is possible to avail possible treatments towards a proactive step of preserving delicate eye health and vision.
Upon experiencing any of the above symptoms, make sure you consult an eye care professional at the earliest.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vision Loss: A Public Health Problem. (https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basic_information/vision_loss.htm) Assessed 1/14/2022.
- National Institutes of Health. National Eye Institute. Keep Your Eyes Healthy. (https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/healthy-vision/keep-your-eyes-healthy) Assessed 1/14/2022.
- American Academy of Ophthalmology. Eye Health A-Z. (https://www.aao.org/eye-health/a-z) Assessed 1/14/2022.